The eye functions much like a camera. It has a lens system in the front of the eye to focus light onto the “film” in the back of the eye, the retina. The light passes from the surface of the eye to the retina by passing through the clear vitreous gel which fills the inside of the eye.
As we age, the vitreous jelly in our eye turns to liquid. The vitreous pulls away from the retina as it liquefies. In a small percentage of people, as the vitreous separates, it exerts traction on the macula – the center of the retina that is responsible for our sharp, central vision functions like reading small print, threading a needle, or identifying small objects with fine detail. This tugging can ultimately lead to a hole forming in the center of the macula – a macular hole.